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Background: Exploring Turntables – How they Work and their Types

Background: Exploring Turntables - How they Work and their Types - This article will guide you about what are turntables, how they work and what types of turntable are there.


Turntables are a remarkable piece of audio equipment that has endured through decades of technological advancements in the music industry. They are essential tools for audiophiles and DJs alike, offering a unique and authentic listening experience. In this article, we’ll delve into what turntables are, how they work, and the various types available.

What is a Turntable?

A turntable, often referred to as a record player or phonograph, is a device designed to play vinyl records. It consists of several key components that work together to produce sound from vinyl records. These components include:

  1. Platter: The circular surface where the vinyl record rests and spins. It is usually made of heavy materials like aluminum, acrylic, or glass to provide stability and minimize vibrations.
  2. Tonearm: The tonearm is a pivotal part of the turntable. It holds the cartridge (stylus) and allows it to track the grooves on the vinyl record. Its precision and balance are crucial for optimal sound reproduction.
  3. Cartridge and Stylus: The cartridge houses the stylus (needle) that makes contact with the grooves on the vinyl record. As the stylus traces the record’s grooves, it converts the physical vibrations into an electrical signal, which is then sent to an amplifier or a preamp for amplification.
  4. Motor and Drive System: Turntables come with different drive systems, the two most common being belt drive and direct drive. Belt-drive turntables use an elastic belt to connect the motor to the platter, reducing motor vibrations and providing a smoother rotation. Direct-drive turntables have the motor directly attached to the platter, offering greater torque and speed stability.

How Turntables Work

The process of how turntables work can be broken down into several steps:

  1. Placing the Record: The user places a vinyl record on the platter of the turntable. The record is centered and secured onto the platter to ensure even rotation.
  2. Starting the Turntable: When the turntable is powered on and the user lifts the tonearm from its rest, the platter begins to spin at a set speed. This speed is determined by the chosen RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) setting on the turntable.
  3. Lowering the Stylus: The user gently lowers the tonearm, causing the stylus to make contact with the groove on the vinyl record’s surface. As the stylus tracks the groove, it detects the variations in the groove’s shape, which correspond to the recorded audio.
  4. Converting Mechanical to Electrical: The stylus’s movement within the groove generates mechanical vibrations. These vibrations are transmitted through the tonearm and the cartridge to the stylus. The stylus, in turn, converts these mechanical vibrations into electrical signals.
  5. Amplification and Playback: The electrical signals generated by the stylus are very weak. These signals are sent to an amplifier or preamplifier (phono stage) to be boosted to a level suitable for playback. The amplified signal is then sent to speakers or headphones, where it is converted back into audible sound.

Types of Turntables

There are several types of turntables available, catering to different needs and preferences:

  1. Audiophile Turntables: These high-end turntables are designed for the ultimate in audio fidelity. They often feature top-quality components, precision engineering, and minimal vibration. Audiophile turntables can be quite expensive but deliver exceptional sound quality.
  2. DJ Turntables: Built with durability and performance in mind, DJ turntables are commonly used by disc jockeys for mixing and scratching. They are typically direct-drive models, offering quick start-up times and strong torque for precise control.
  3. Vintage Turntables: Collectors and enthusiasts often seek vintage turntables, which were popular in the mid-20th century. These classic models may require restoration but have a unique charm and character that appeals to many.
  4. Portable Turntables: These compact and lightweight turntables are designed for on-the-go listening. They often include built-in speakers and are powered by batteries or USB. Portable turntables are a convenient option for vinyl enthusiasts who want to enjoy their records anywhere.
Pro-ject T1 SB turntable 


Turntables have a timeless appeal, offering a nostalgic and authentic way to experience music. Whether you’re an audiophile, a DJ, or simply someone who appreciates the warmth and richness of vinyl records, there’s a turntable to suit your needs. Understanding how turntables work and the different types available can help you choose the perfect one to enhance your musical journey. So, dust off those old records or start a new vinyl collection, and let the magic of turntables transport you to a world of sonic bliss.